# Meet P4 metric – new way to evaluate binary classifiers

## Introduction

Binary classifiers are accompanying us on a daily basis. Tests that detect disease, give us the answer: positive/negative, spam filters say spam/not spam, smartphones that authenticate us based on a face scan or fingerprint – make a known/unknown decision. The question: how to evaluate the efficiency of such a classifier does not seem extremely complicated. Just choose the one that will predict the most cases correctly. As many of us have already realized – the actual evaluation of a binary classifier requires somewhat more sophisticated means. But we’ll talk about that in a moment.

# Extending F1 metric, probabilistic approach

## Abstract

This article explores the extension of well-known F1 score used for assessing the performance of binary classifiers. We propose the new metric using probabilistic interpretation of precision, recall, specifcity, and negative predictive value. We describe its properties and compare it to common metrics. Then we demonstrate its behavior in edge cases of the confusion matrix. Finally, the properties of the metric are tested on binary classifier trained on the real dataset.

Keywords: machine learning, binary classifier, F1 , MCC, precision, recall

# Binary classifier metrics

Have you ever wanted to develop a better intuition for measuring the performance of a binary classifier? Precision, recall, accuracy, specificity, F1… Now you have all these metrics under your fingers in the Performance Metrics Playground. You can control your population parameters – number of positive and negative samples, as well as the simulated classifier parameters – number of true positives and true negatives.

# Image Recognition and Linear Regression

In the following article, we will look at image recognition using linear regression. We realize that this idea may seem quite unusual. However, we will show using a simple example, that for a certain class of images, and under quite strictly defined circumstances, the linear regression method can achieve surprisingly fair results.

# Czy sztuczna inteligencja zna się na mechanice kwantowej?

We explore the possibility of the K-Means algorithm usage for cleaning scans of hand-made notes. A Scikit Learn implementation of the algorithm is used. The original image is decomposed into three clusters in RGB space. Finally we got cleaned picture as the result of removing 2 of 3 clusters from the original one. References:

Jakiś czas temu, podczas porządkowania szafy wpadły mi w ręce, moje stare szpargały. Notatki z wykładów z mechaniki kwantowej, które to notatki jako student w latach 90-tych skrzętnie prowadziłem. Gdy już się nacieszyłem wspomnieniami zacząłem się zastanawiać czy nie dałoby się nieco poprawić ich wyglądu, oczyścić ze zbędnych elementów. Na każdej stronie widnieje niebiesko-blada kratka, dodatkowo pojawiają się przebitki atramentu z drugiej strony kartki. Widoczne są również otwory na wpięcie do segregatora.